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  • 作文大全網提供《阿波羅登月成功歷史資料》
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    阿波羅登月成功歷史資料

    文章作者:作文大全網 | 時間:2015-02-13 01:43:57 | 來源:作文大全網

      阿波羅載人登月工程開始于1961年5月,預計1969年7月20至21日首次實現登月。此后,美國又相繼6次發射“阿波羅”飛船,其中5次成功,總共有12名航天員登上月球。整個工程歷時約11年,到1972年12月結束,耗資255億美元。在工程高峰時期,參加工程的有2萬家企業、200多所大學和80多個科研機構,總人數超過30萬。它是本世紀人類最宏偉的工程之一。

      該工程的第一步是確定登月方案,它包括論證飛船登月飛行軌道和確定載人飛船總體布局。最后選定月球軌道交會方案,相應地確定由指揮艙、服務艙和登月艙組成飛船的總體布局。

      為了進行載人登月,美國先實施了四個輔助計劃,即在1961年至1965年發射九個“徘徊者”月球軌道器,用以了解未來的“阿波羅”飛船在月面著陸的可能性;在1966年至1968年發射五個“勘探者”月球著陸器,了解月球土壤的理化特性;在1966年至1967年發射三個“月球軌道環形器”,對40多個預選著陸地點進行詳細觀測,從而選出10個登月點;在1965年至1966年發射10艘“雙子座”飛船,進行生物醫學研究和飛船機動飛行、對接及艙外活動訓練等。

      “阿波羅”工程的第三個方面就是研制低軌道運載能力為127噸的大推力“土星5”運載火箭。

      研制“阿波羅”飛船是該工程的“重頭戲”。飛船的指令艙是航天員生活和工作的地方,也是全飛船的控制中心;服務艙裝有主發動機等系統;登月艙由下降級和上升級組成。

      首次載人登月是由“阿波羅11號”飛船完成的。當時飛船上載有三名航天員,當飛船與“土星5”火箭第三級分離,且阿波羅11號搭載登月艙飛船沿過渡軌道飛行2.5天后,便開始接近月球,此時飛船服務艙的主發動機減速,使飛船進入環月軌道。接著,兩名航天員進入登月艙,并駕駛登月艙與飛船分離,這時飛船指揮艙內的一名航天員繼續駕駛飛船繞月球軌道飛行,而另兩名航天員則乘登月艙在月面著陸。登月后航天員采集了巖石和土壤(22千克),展開了太陽電池陣,安裝了月震儀等。任務完成后,他們乘登月艙的上升級返回月球軌道,與飛船對接,最后返回地球。

      1969年11月至1972年12月,美國又陸續發射了“阿波羅”12至17飛船,其中除“阿波羅13號”因故沒有登月(航天員安全返回地面),另五艘飛船均登月成功,“阿波羅”15至17飛船的航天員還駕月球車在月面活動,采集巖石。

      航天員在月球上鉆取了三米的月球巖芯,發現多達57層,每層代表一次隕石沖擊,還測量了月球內部發出的熱流……“阿波羅”工程極為壯觀,它激動了無數人的心,使載人登月的千年夢想變成了現實。

     

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